Terminology

Terminology

Aalborg Charter Charter of European cities and towns towards sustainability. Provides a framework for the delivery of local sustainable development and calls on local authorities to engage in Local Agenda 21 processes.
Aalborg Commitments Follow-up to the Aalborg charter, launched to re-activate LA21 actions. The Aalborg Commitments process offers local governments a specific framework to set concrete targets and tasks to develop in a sustainable way. Local governments can sign the Aalborg Commitments as a result of debate and approval by the local council.
Aarhus Convention The UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. It grants the public rights regarding access to information, public participation and access to justice, in governmental decision-making processes on matters concerning the local, national and transboundary environment. As of April 2008, it had been signed and ratified by 40 countries.
Accessibility Accessibility refers to the ease with which people can access or participate in employment, shopping, education, health, entertainment, social and other activities available in an area. The word ‘accessible’ is often more narrowly used to describe improvements to transport for people with physical and other disabilities.
Action plan Document containing short-term targets and concrete measures (responsibilities, time frames etc.) to reach them within the sustainability management system. Based on the broader framework stated in a strategic program.
Baseline Review First element of the management cycle. Assessment of the local situation based on a large data collection and described with the help of indicators. Basis for the setting of priorities, elaboration of the strategic program and action plan. Basis against which to compare changes over time.
Benchmarking Benchmarking (also “best practice benchmarking” or “process benchmarking”) is a process used in management – particularly strategic management – in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. This then allows organizations to develop plans on how to adopt such ‘best practice’, usually with the aim of increasing some aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a single event, but is often treated as a continuous process in which organizations continually seek to challenge their practices. [2]
Brownfield land A tract of land used for industrial or commercial purposes that remains abandoned or underutilized in part because of environmental contamination or the fear of such contamination. [3]
Capacity Building Capacity building describes human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional and resource capabilities. The main goal of capacity building is to enhance the ability to evaluate and address the crucial questions related to policy choices and modes of implementation among development options.
Car-pooling Car-pooling (or car-sharing) is a system in which a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned by a company or a cooperative and available for use by members of the car pool. Typically, the participants in such a program are city dwellers whose transportation needs are largely met by public transit, walking or cycling. Some households use a car share as an alternative to owning (and parking) a second car. [2]
C-SMARTER objectives

Mnemonic used in project management at the project objective setting stage. It is a way of evaluating if the objectives that are being set are appropriate for the individual project.

C-SMARTER objectives refer to Challenging, Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely, Evaluated and Recorded objectives.[2]

ecoBUDGET Management instrument developed by ICLEI that makes an analogy from natural resources with financial resources and allows a local administration to keep track of spending of the finite resources. It helps to implement Local Agenda 21 action plans.
Eco-industry Company producing goods and services which serve to measure, prevent, reduce or correct environmental damages.
Eco-Lighthouse Environmental certification program for small and medium-sized companies and public administration in Norway. Through the program companies reduce their impact on environment, cut costs and benefit from their status as an environmentally responsible company.
ECOLUP Environmental Management for Communal Urban Land Use Planning. Applies the European
environmental management system EMAS II to communal urban land use planning processes.
Developed by the Lake Constance Foundation.
ECO-PROFIT Ecological Project for Integrated Environmental Technology. Program for sustainable economic development. Intends to strengthen companies economically by using environmental-friendly technologies and simultaneously improving the ecological situation in a region. Developed in Graz, Austria.
EU-funding EU funding schemes targeted towards urban transport; schemes for Civitas, other FP7 calls, Intelligent Energy (renewable fuels/ urban transport energy efficient transport), Marco Polo. More general funding instruments Interreg (different strands, A, B and C and geographical coverage), LIFE+, Urbact. Structural and cohesion funds in general. http://cordis.europa.eu/, http://www.civitas-initiative.eu/, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/index_en.html, http://ec.europa.eu/transport/marcopolo/2/index_en.htm, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/
EMAS The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a voluntary instrument of EU which acknowledges organizations improving their environmental performance on a continuous basis.
EMS Environmental Management System, a set of processes and practices that enable an organisation to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency.
Environmentally friendly shopping Ecologically responsible shopping. Buying products which have the least load environment. Thus e.g. products that are locally produced, natural or made of recycled materials.
European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign (ESCTC) The ESCTC seeks to meet the mandate established for the local level in Chapter 28 of the
Agenda 21 document, aiming to translate to the European level the outcomes of the Rio World
Summit 1992. The Campaign combines the expertise of eight local government networks. It
aims to support local governments across Europe to mainstream sustainability best practice and
to implement the Aalborg Charter and Aalborg Commitments so as to achieve tangible results in
local sustainable development. http://www.sustainable-cities.eu/
External costs Costs not included in the market price of the goods and services being produced, i.e., a cost not borne by those who create it. [5]
Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is used for considering what the driving and restraining forces are in any decision that needs to be taken. The analysis should clearly identify the strong reasons for a decision and at the same time identifying and dealing with reasons not to take or implement a particular decision.[6]
Gender equality Concept meaning that all human beings are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by strict gender roles; that the different behaviour, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favoured equally.[4]
Gender equity Fairness of treatment by gender, which may be equal treatment or treatment which is different but which is considered equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities. [4]
Good governance Good governance has the following characteristics: governance is good when it is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective, efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rules of law. [16]
Green procurement Purchase of products or services that are less-toxic and harmful to our health and environment than other available products or services on the market.
Green purchasing See → Green procurement
Horizontal integration Integration across city departments and all relevant stakeholders in the city
Integrated Management System (IMS) Management system which integrates all relevant components of an organization (or municipality) into one coherent system so as to enable the optimal achievement of its objectives.
In this context it mainly refers to the environmental and sustainable development issues raised by the daily management of a municipality’s whole urban area.
ISO 14001 Environmental management system standard developed by ISO, International Organization for Standardization.
Intelligent Transport Systems Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) include the application of advanced information processing (computers), communications, technologies and management strategies in an integrated manner in order to improve the safety, capacity and efficiency of the transportation system.[8]
Intermodal Transport Movement of goods using more than one means of transportation. The most common intermodal arrangement is that goods are moved by truck from their origin, transferred to rail for the long distances between regions, and then transferred back to truck near their final destination. [9]
Internalisation of external costs The incorporation of an externality into the market decision-making of external costs process
through pricing or regulatory interventions. In the narrow sense, internalisation is achieved by charging polluters (for example) with the damage costs of the pollution generated by them, in accordance with ‘the polluter pays’ principle. [7]
Least-cost Planning Least-Cost Planning is an approach to resource planning that:
  • Considers demand management solutions equally with strategies to increase capacity.
  • Considers all significant impacts (costs and benefits), including non-market impacts.
  • Involves the public in developing and evaluating alternatives. [10]
Local Agenda 21 LA21 follows the principles of sustainable development and the goal of ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, both now and in the future. It focuses on an economic, social and environmental agenda on the local level. Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action (2500 action items) to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and major groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment. Agenda 21 was adopted by more than 178 Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992. www.bla21f.net/
Local authorities Local authorities are the locally elected or appointed bodies which are municipalities, cities or metropolitan councils, regional and district administrations etc. These institutions can own and manage property, land and other capital resources. They have responsibility for vital functions such as education, planning, community development, social inclusion, dealing with social problems, managing transport infrastructure, providing conflict resolution services, collecting local revenue and managing their expenditure. They may also be responsible for the delivery of services to citizens.
Logistics Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling the flow of goods, energy, information and other resources from the source of production to the marketplace. The convergence of economic, political and technological forces in the mid-1990s dramatically increased the importance of logistics. The delivery of goods overtook production as the most critical factor in business success. Almost overnight, the responsibility of logistics grew from simply getting a product out the door to the science of controlling the optimal flow of goods, energy, and information through the purchasing, planning and transportation management. In the wake of this change, the role of logistics went from local to global, tactical to strategic, and from the backroom to the boardroom. [11]
Mobility management Mobility Management is primarily a demand-oriented management approach to passenger and freight transport that involves new partnerships and new tools. The aim is to support and encourage a change of attitude and behaviour towards sustainable modes of transport. The tools of mobility management are based on information, communication, organization and co-ordination. These tools require promotion. Mobility Management, which is both a novel and promising concept to promote sustainable transport, varies from country-to-country both in terms of scope and level of implementation. www.epomm.org (European Platform on Mobility Management)
Modal split Modal split or modal share is a traffic / transport term which describes the percentage of travellers using a particular type of transportation. [2]
Monitoring Monitoring is an ongoing process that helps decision-makers to better understand the effect-
tiveness of the action or system. An effective monitoring process provides ongoing, systematic
information that strengthens project implementation. It requires collecting and analyzing
important data on a periodic basis throughout the management cycle of a project.
Needs Analysis Needs analysis assesses the internal situation of the city with focusing on trying to answer questions like: what is your city like in 10 years time? What is needed to get there?
Organizational Set-up Organizational set-up connects all direct and indirect responsibilities and aspects of a local authority with regard to environment or sustainable development. The structure of the IMS should incorporate and make use of the existing structures in municipal administration, and not the other way around. The core parts of the organizational set-up are a coordination team and a cross-departmental coordination board. The coordination team is preferably arranged centrally within the administration to manage the coordination of the system. The coordination board is responsible for supervising the whole IMS.
Parking management Strategies aimed at making better use of the available management parking supply. Parking management strategies include preferential parking or price discounts for carpools and/or short-term parkers, and disincentives for those contributing more to congestion. [11]
PDCA The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle sometimes also referred to as the Deming Cycle. The basic principles of all management systems. http://www.asq.org/learn-about-quality/project-planning-tools/overview/pdsa-cycle.html
Peer review Cities performing a critical review on each other on a pre-set theme or scope. I.e. can be used for reviewing experiences in implementing an urban integrated management system
PESTLE PESTLE analyses the external environment in which a city operates. The abbreviation stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental factors that are considered when creating a strategic plan. http://www.rapidbi.com/created/the-PESTLE-analysis-tool.html
Preliminary report Document setting the outer framework, a starting point, for a financial budget. Preliminary report has been adopted as a tool by ecoBUDGET to manage resource consumption.
Primary energy consumption Primary energy consumption refers to the direct use at the source, or supply to users without transformation, of crude energy, that is, energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.
Project portfolio Project portfolio is a group of projects which, together, addresses a sustainability problem, or a sustainability gap. The portfolios may be defined by 1. A process in the city (waste management, economic development, etc), 2. A geographic area, such as a neighbourhood, 3. A target group (schoolchildren, elderly, business community or NGOs)
Public-Private partnership A cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner, that best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards. [18]
SMART target A target should be SMART i.e. specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time related
Spatial planning Spatial planning refers to the methods used by public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. This includes urban (urban planning), regional (regional planning), national and international levels. [2]
Stakeholder Stakeholders are those having an interest in a particular decision either as individuals or representatives of a group. This includes people who influence a decision or can influence it as well as those affected by the decision.
Sustainable building Buildings that are designed, built and operated with low environmental impacts (or actually start to have a positive environmental impact) while enhancing the health, welfare and quality of life for the people that live in them.
Sustainable consumption The use of services and related products which respond to basic needs and bring a better
quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the
emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to
jeopardize. [14]
Sustainable development Development hat meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It includes the integrated approach of economic, environmental and social aspects of development.
Sustainable transport All forms of transport which minimize fuel consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide and
pollutants. It can refer to public transport, car sharing, walking and cycling as well as technology
such as electric and hybrid cars and biodiesel.
SWOT-analysis Analytical tool used to discuss and analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a certain certain topic, business or organization and its environment. Used as part of the baseline review. http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_swot.htm
System audit The environmental assessment in accordance with EMAS consists of three elements. The system audit is the assessment of the (environmental management-) system
Transport Demand Management Transportation Demand Management (TDM), also known as Mobility Management, is a general term for various management strategies that increase the efficiency of transportation system. TDM treats mobility as a means to an end, rather than an end in itself. It emphasizes the movement of people and goods, rather than that of motor vehicles, and that way gives priority to more efficient modes (such as walking, cycling, ridesharing, public transit and telework), particularly under congested conditions. It prioritizes travel based on the value and costs of each trip, giving higher value trips and lower cost modes priority over lower value, higher cost travel, when doing so increases overall system efficiency.http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm51.htm
Urban Sprawl Pejorative term for low-density development in suburban and the fringe of urban areas. Characteristics include distance from employment and commercial centres, dependence on automobile travel, extended public infrastructure and little in-fill development. [19]
UTS or TSUE Urban Thematic Strategy or Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment. One of seven thematic strategies that make up the 6th Environmental Action Programme of the EU. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/preparatory_work.htm
Vertical integration Integration of local, regional and national levels
Whole urban area Within the MUE-25 framework addressing the whole urban area means: to address all relevant activities of all actors (municipality and stakeholders) within the borders of the political authority area and built-up city area that have significant environmental impacts.
6th Environmental Action Programme Sixth Environment Action Programme of the European Community 2002-2012. Takes a broad look at the environmental challenges and provides a strategic framework for the Commission's environmental policy. Four priority areas: Climate change, Nature and biodiversity, Environment and health, Natural resources and waste. Calls for the development of seven Thematic Strategies in the field of soil and the marine environment (in the priority area of biodiversity), air, pesticides and urban environment (in the priority area of environment, health and quality of life) and natural resources and waste recycling (in the priority area of natural resources and waste). The Thematic Strategies constitute the framework for action at EU level in each of the concerned priorities.

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